Call for Fellowship Applications: Jaipreet Virdi 2021 Fellowship for Disability Studies

ABOUT US:

The Medical Heritage Library, Inc. (MHL) is a collaborative digitization and discovery organization of some of the world’s leading medical libraries committed to providing open access to resources in the history of healthcare and health sciences. The MHL’s goal is to provide the means by which readers and scholars across a multitude of disciplines can examine the interrelated nature of medicine and society, both to inform contemporary medicine and to strengthen understanding of the world in which we live.

DESCRIPTION:
The Medical Heritage Library seeks a motivated fellow to assist in the continuing development of our education and outreach programs. Under the guidance of a member ofour governance board, the fellow will develop curated collections or sets for the MHL website on the topic ofdisability and medical technologies.Examples of existing primary source sets can be found on the MHL website://www.concawa.com/resource-sets/。这些集合将来自超过30个0,000 items in our Internet Archive library. The curated collections provide a means for our visitors to discover the richness of MHL materials on a variety of topics relevant to the history of health and the health sciences. As part of this work, the fellow will have an opportunity to enrich metadata in MHL records in Internet Archive to support scholarship and inquiry on this topic.

This paid fellowship will be hosted virtually, with no in-person component.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

  • Based on the input of MHL members and others, work on the creation of curated sets of materials drawn from MHL collections.
  • Enrich MHL metadata to highlight underrepresented topics in our Internet Archive collections.
  • Regularly create blog posts and other type of social media for posting to MHL accounts.
  • Other duties as assigned.

QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE:

This virtual position is open to all qualified graduate students with a strong interest in medical, disability, or health history, with additional interests in library/information science or education. Strong communication and collaboration skills are a must. Fellows are expected to learn quickly and work independently.

FELLOWSHIP DURATION:

The fellowship will take place anytime between the end of May 2021-mid-August 2021

HOURS:

150 hours, over 12 weeks with a maximum of 20 hours in any given week.

SALARY:

$20/hour not to exceed $3000

NUMBER OF AVAILABLE FELLOWSHIPS: 1

To apply, please provide the following:

  • Cover letter documenting interest in position
  • Curriculum Vitae
  • 2 References- names (with positions) and emails and phone numbers of references to contact

Please submit your application materials byApril 19th, 2021through this from:https://forms.gle/APV6Kq9G38SJbzkZA

Candidate interviews will take place virtually.

Call for Fellowship Applications: 2021 Education Resources Fellow

ABOUT US:

The Medical Heritage Library, Inc. (MHL) is a collaborative digitization and discovery organization of some of the world’s leading medical libraries committed to providing open access to resources in the history of healthcare and health sciences. The MHL’s goal is to provide the means by which readers and scholars across a multitude of disciplines can examine the interrelated nature of medicine and society, both to inform contemporary medicine and to strengthen understanding of the world in which we live.

DESCRIPTION:
The Medical Heritage Library seeks a motivated fellow to assist in the continuing development of our education and outreach programs. Under the guidance of a member ofour governance board, the fellow will develop curated collections or sets for the MHL website on the topic ofrace and equity in health and healthcare.Examples of existing primary source sets can be found on the MHL website://www.concawa.com/resource-sets/。这些集合将来自超过30个0,000 items in our Internet Archive library. The curated collections provide a means for our visitors to discover the richness of MHL materials on a variety of topics relevant to the history of health and the health sciences. As part of this work, the fellow will have an opportunity to enrich metadata in MHL records in Internet Archive to support scholarship and inquiry on this topic.

This paid fellowship will be hosted virtually, with no in-person component.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

  • Based on the input of MHL members and others, work on the creation of curated sets of materials drawn from MHL collections.
  • Enrich MHL metadata to highlight underrepresented topics in our Internet Archive collections.
  • Regularly create blog posts and other type of social media for posting to MHL accounts.
  • Other duties as assigned.

QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE:

This virtual position is open to all qualified graduate students with a strong interest in medical or health history, with additional interests in library/information science or education. Strong communication and collaboration skills a must. Fellows are expected to learn quickly and work independently.

FELLOWSHIP DURATION:

The fellowship will take place anytime between the end of May 2021-mid-August 2021

HOURS:

150 hours, over 12 weeks with a maximum of 20 hours in any given week.

SALARY:

$20/hour not to exceed $3000

NUMBER OF AVAILABLE FELLOWSHIPS: 1

To apply, please provide the following:

  • Cover letter documenting interest in position
  • Curriculum Vitae
  • 2 References- names (with positions) and emails and phone numbers of references to contact

Please submit your application materials by April 19th, 2021 through this form:https://forms.gle/wQpjSpsEa8i2N1X36

Candidate interviews will take place virtually.

Introducing Our Summer 2020 Fellow: Kim Adams

Kim celebrating a sunflower she grew in her backyard last year.

For a few years running, there has been minor scandal about Joe Biden’s wife. Jill Biden has a doctorate in education from the University of Delaware, and requests that she be addressed under her formal title: Dr. Biden. While the Obama White Houselisted her as “Dr. Jill Biden” on their official website,several newspapers, including theNew York Times,refused to honor her wish, referring to her as “Mrs. Biden.”TheWashington Postremarked that it reserves the title of Dr. for medical professionals,“if you can’t heal the sick, we don’t call you doctor.”While there is ample room for sexism in refusing Dr. Biden her proper title, there is also a long history of intellectual warfare between the arts and the sciences.

As the child of two physicians, I spent a lot of time defending my choice not to go to medical school, and instead pursue a PhD. When I earned my doctorate from the Department of English at NYU in the spring of 2019, I got a lot of well-meaning jokes about which Dr. Adams was the “real” doctor. It turns out the punchline might require a bit of medical history. At the Society for Literature, Science, and the Arts conference last fall, a colleague told me that in the eighteenth century, it was reversed, “We were the real doctors, and they were not.”

I like to imagine myself as someone who, like C.P. Snow, has a foot in each of these “two cultures”: standing with the “real” doctors of the past and the present. Snow argued in 1959 that the intellectual life of Western culture was increasingly being split into two groups, the humanists and the scientists, who were utterly failing to communicate with each other:“one found Greenwich Village talking precisely the same language as Chelsea, and both having about as much communication with M.I.T. as though the scientists spoke nothing but Tibetan.”He observed this division not through an anthropological study of academic communities, but through the idiosyncrasies of personal experience: “plenty of days when I have spent the working hours with scientists and then gone off at night with some literary colleagues.” I, on the other hand, spend my working hours researching the Harlem Renaissance, and my evenings drinking with scientists (or at least I did before our current pandemic). Snow is a double agent: a scientist by day and a writer by night. I am another, newer kind of operative: a medical humanist.

I have crafted a scholarly identity that combines literature and medicine with the goal of speaking a language understood on both sides of the cultural divide. My dissertation,The Body Electric,examines the role of medical technology in American literature, from mesmerism to electroconvulsive therapy, Walt Whitman to Ralph Ellison.Sharing this research with a wider audience, I recently published a piece on the medical history of vibrators.In it, I argue that vibrators were asexual medical quackery from the 1890s to the 1970s when feminists repurposed them for masturbatory liberation. Last spring, I worked with my peers to organize a conference on the cultural history of pharmacology, where we heard papers about anesthesia in nineteenth-century American novels, the opium trade in colonial Korea, and crisis nursing at twentieth-century rock concerts. The conference confirmed my suspicion that the amazing material history of medicine deserves a wider audience.

The Medical Heritage Library brings an extraordinary range of material from the history and culture of medical science to the broader reading public. Scores of freely available, digital resources in the MHL collections, from medieval accounts of plague and quarantine, to early twentieth century studies of eugenics and “race suicide,” speak directly to our contemporary moment, and have a valuable role to play in shaping public discourse. As the Summer Outreach Fellow, I look forward to extending the MHL’s mission to share these resources with humanists and scientists alike, building a common language among the multiple, vibrant, cultures of the broader reading public

Call for Fellowship Applications: Educational Resources Fellow

ABOUT US:

The Medical Heritage Library, Inc. is a collaborative digitization and discovery organization of some of the world’s leading medical libraries committed to providing open access to resources in the history of healthcare and health sciences. The MHL’s goal is to provide the means by which readers and scholars across a multitude of disciplines can examine the interrelated nature of medicine and society, both to inform contemporary medicine and to strengthen understanding of the world in which we live.

DESCRIPTION:

医学图书馆(MHL)寻求motivat遗产ed fellow to assist in the continuing development of our education and outreach programs. Hosted by one of our member institutions in New York, Boston, New Haven, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, the fellow will develop curated topical collections or sets for MHL website drawn from the over 300,000 items in our Internet Archive library. These curated collections provide a means for our visitors to discover the richness of MHL materials on a variety of topics relevant to the history of health and the health sciences. As part of this work, the fellow will have an opportunity to enrich metadata in MHL records in Internet Archive to support certain types of scholarship/inquiry, such as reproductive health, human sexuality, race and equity in healthcare, or other topics to be determined. The fellow will also begin developing educational materials tied to K-12 and/or university level curriculum.

The fellowship is paid and may be taken for course credit.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

  • Based on the input of MHL members and others, work on the creation of curated sets of materials drawn from MHL collections.
  • Enrich MHL metadata to highlight underrepresented topics in our Internet Archive collections.
  • Participate in creating and implementing social media promotions and campaigns.
  • Other duties as assigned.

QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE:

This position is open to all qualified graduate students with a strong interest in medical or health history, with additional interests in library/information science or education. Strong communication and collaboration skills are a must. Fellows are expected to learn quickly and work independently.

FELLOWSHIP DURATION:

The fellowship will take place anytime between the end of May 2020-mid-August 2020

HOURS:

20 hours per week, over 12 weeks.

SALARY:

$20/hour

To apply, please provide the following:

Cover letter documenting interest in position

Curriculum Vitae

2 References

Please submit your application materials by Friday, April 3, 2020 to:

Attn: Fellowship committeemedicalheritage@gmail.com

Call for Fellowship Applications: Outreach Fellow

ABOUT US:

The Medical Heritage Library, Inc. is a collaborative digitization and discovery organization of some of the world’s leading medical libraries committed to providing open access to resources in the history of healthcare and health sciences. The MHL’s goal is to provide the means by which readers and scholars across a multitude of disciplines can examine the interrelated nature of medicine and society, both to inform contemporary medicine and to strengthen understanding of the world in which we live.

DESCRIPTION:

医学图书馆(MHL)寻求motivat遗产ed fellow to develop and organize the planning of the tenth anniversary of our organization. Collaborating with the MHL Education and Outreach working group or Governance group, the fellow will help plan a virtual conference to take place in fall 2020 or spring 2021. Hosted by one of our member institutions in New York, Boston, New Haven, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, the fellow will develop a suite of online programs, webinars, or virtual conferences to celebrate the content in the MHL, appeal to digital scholars, and engage with our users. The fellow will research how to develop virtual conferences, propose topics, help identify and recruit speakers, outline planning including outreach, logistics, and organization, and provide a working plan for the conference. The fellow will also liaise with MHL partners, including the DPLA and Internet Archive for possible programming or publicity.

Working with our Co-ordinator, the fellow will launch an anniversary social media campaign, including the creation of an Instagram account for the MHL.

The fellowship is paid and may be taken for course credit.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

  • Develop and help implement online programs, webinars, or virtual conferences.
  • Coordinate communications around the MHL’s tenth anniversary.
  • Liaise with MHL partners for possible programming or publicity.
  • Participate in creating and implementing social media promotions and campaigns.
  • Other duties as assigned.

QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE:

This position is open to all qualified graduate students with a strong interest in medical or health history, with additional interests in library/information science or education. Strong communication and collaboration skills are a must. Fellows are expected to learn quickly and work independently. Experience planning programs, events, or webinars is preferred.

FELLOWSHIP DURATION:

The fellowship will take place anytime between the end of May 2020-mid-August 2020

HOURS:

20 hours per week, over 12 weeks.

SALARY:

$20/hour

To apply, please provide the following:

Cover letter documenting interest in position

Curriculum Vitae

2 References

Please submit your application materials by Friday, April 3, 2020 to:

Attn: Fellowship committeemedicalheritage@gmail.com



Locating Disabilities in Historical Medical Literature

~Kelly Hacker Jones

The second collection of documents I curated this summer focus on the topic of disabilities in medical history. This is topic that is rich for exploration and requires careful contextualization. The words used to describe physical, mental, and emotional impairments have, over time, come to be used as degrading and dehumanizing terms, yet many such (including “cripple,” “feeble-minded,” “moron,” and the like) were commonly used in medical literature of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. My goal with these collections, therefore, was to provide ample specific context and to demonstrate how understandings of physical, mental, and developmental disabilities have changed over time.

两个区域是围绕他的集合torians of disabilities have called the medical and social models of disability: the former sees conditions labeled as disabling as based in an abnormal process that must be corrected, while the latter considers disabilities to be the problem of the social or built environment (to cite a common example: using a wheelchair isn’t inherently a problem, until one encounters stairs). The sources contained in the medical model collections (which I termed interventions/care), were chosen because they each give a perspective on how the medical community at a specific point in time approached care for people with disabilities. This 1867 text,Infantile Paralysis and its Attendant Deformitiesby Charles F. Taylor, details not only the design of various apparatuses to treat children with lingering paralysis, but expounds on the author’s theory as to why the disease developed (nervously-exhausted parents were to blame!).

Likewise, the social model collection (policy/society) highlights items from MHL’s collections that show how individuals with disabilities coped with the challenges of their day, or how society has tried to accommodate people with disabilities. One particularly rich set of sources was produced by the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Labor, which in 1944 set out to survey the prevalence and types of assistance available to citizens with disabilities (in all likelihood, for the purpose of having a list of what soldiers returning from World War II might expect). The “Hearings on Aids to the Physically Handicapped” ran to eight sessions and produced 1,138 total pages of testimony pertaining to services available to individuals with disabilities (and often on what was NOT available). The first volume in the series can be locatedhere

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/9sTcooZ00hCpoLylLsqa9tFPHqw4zJ2UZ2pvSxh4oanuznYkRxHY0zLFhfePvzMlmvukauF66RWzOkjKu1VlhX6MdFduWFYLbcnEhvgq0Q3mkbgt2UjVokW19Pm6w7wmdENUDflt

(Image fromCarry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Crippled Soldiers and Sailors(1918-1919), issue 1, p. 19.)

Rather than organize around specific types of disability, I chose these classifications in order to highlight commonalities across those categories. However, I thought a sort of “case-study” approach would also be useful, as it could provide a through-line narrative. For this, I chose the topic of veterans with disabilities. This allowed me to take advantage of collections digitized by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Office of Medical History Collection. One common theme was that of rehabilitation, especially in the wake of World War I. This magazine,Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Crippled Soldiers and Sailors,was produced by the American Red Cross as a resource for individuals and relief societies interested in veterans with disabilities. It’s oft-repeated message was “not charity, but a chance.”

创建这个集合一定发现了苏rces that may be unsettling or disturbing to some, and where necessary I have included notes to that effect. One tendency in historical medical literature that discusses patients with disabilities is the use of images of patients (clothed and unclothed, face obscured or not) to illustrate examples. While the case can be made that these have been valuable teaching tools for medical students in the past, the question of whether the patient consented to the use of their image is not always answered. Unfortunately, it’s often safe to say that consent was not considered in the era prior to the 1970s.

We’ll be showcasing more of Kelly’s work from this summer when our blog redesign is fully complete.

The Cow says, “Ouch!” Animals in the History of Vaccines

~Kelly Hacker Jones.

Following the “animal turn“在历史研究rch, more work has been done in the history of medicine on animals as research subjects. In the realm of vaccination, this history should be immediately apparent: it’s right there in the name. Edward Jenner in his 1798 treatise,An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, applied a Latin name to the cowpox:variolae vaccinae(smallpox + from cows), from which the noun “vaccination” is derived. Jenner developed the first vaccine against a disease after observing that dairymaids and farm hands who had contracted cowpox from livestock were not susceptible either to smallpox infection or inoculation. Jenner’s innovation, as those familiar with the story know, was not greeted with universal enthusiasm.

Image 1: harvesting cowpox lymph from a calf for use in smallpox vaccine. Source: J. Aitchbee,What is Vaccine Lymph?Kilmarnock, Scotland: Joseph Scott, 1904, p. 6

For one thing, just because a substance prevented deadly disease did not make all individuals wild about having it injected into their bodies. The author of“What is Vaccine Lymph?”当然认为淋巴从活牛was not suitable for human use. Referencing illustrations from a government report on the process of vaccine collection (see above), he explained that 18-month-old calves were walked alongside a rotating table, strapped to it, and then elevated into a horizontal position. This position and the restraints made it easier for the cultivators to inflict small cuts and rub cowpox matter into them, encouraging more cowpox sores to grow, and later harvested the lymph for use as smallpox vaccine. Once the cow had recovered from its cultivated cowpox, it was, according to this author, sold to the slaughterhouse.

In all likelihood, the original intent of the photographer was to reassure officials that the vaccine was collected in a regimented manner, but the photos were spun differently by Aitchbee.

The reader was expected to conclude that cultivating vaccine lymph was not only cruel to animals, but that the matter potentially contained the germs of other diseases, such as tuberculosis – cows were also a vector for that terrible disease – and thus posed a danger to human health. Visions of filthy stockyards and the sickly cattle from which vaccine lymph was harvested abound in anti-vaccination literature. One critic argued that inoculation with “puss,” whether from animals or humans, was unnatural and compulsory vaccination, therefore, constituted“assault and a crime in the nature of rape.”

Unsurprisingly, there was a great amount of overlap between anti-vivisectionist societies and anti-vaccination societies in the early twentieth century.

Contrast with this, the story of the diphtheria antitoxin. Whereas Jenner’s discovery took advantage of knowledge from farmers confirmed through his own clinical experiments and observations, the diphtheria antitoxin was developed in laboratories in France and Germany, using then-cutting-edge scientific techniques. As the antitoxin must be generated in an animal body, horses were used as they produce large quantities of blood and generate a fairly quick immune response to the antibodies (for a short history of the New York City Health Department’s diphtheria antitoxin farm,click here).

The antitoxin’s equine origin was not hidden from the public: newspapers coverage from 1895 included photographs of horses standing patiently, allowing their blood to be collected for use in serums that would save the lives of sick children.

Image 2: preparing a horse to harvest diphtheria antibodies for use in manufacturing antitoxin. Source:The Preparation of Diphtheria Antitoxin and Prophylactics(film), produced by G.B. Instructional Ltd., 1945.

Western cultural perceptions of horses as opposed to cows – horses are beautiful and dignified and cows are clumsy and well, unintelligent (I personally do not endorse either of those positions) – may have had an influence on how the public reacted to news that the latest vaccine on the market was also cultivated in animals. Portrayals of horses nobly giving their blood for the sake of innocent children would have gone a long way towards assuaging any qualms about their use as cultivators. Adding to the image of valued service, these horses, once they had given several serum donations, were retired to rural pastures.

Anti-vaccinationists still referenced cultivation in animals generally, but illustrated anti-vaccination sources in the MHL collections only use images of cattle for the purpose of discomforting the reader.

A 1945 educational filmproduced in collaboration with the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories gave audiences a first-hand look at the conditions in which horses were kept during the process of cultivating and harvesting diphtheria antitoxin. The horse was led into a clean tiled room, the site for injections and blood draws was scrubbed and sterilized, and the veterinarians and technicians wore surgical scrubs. The horse is removed from the barnyard and becomes part of the laboratory (I will caution you that the film is overall horrendously dull, as one might expect from a 1940s-era educational film).*

Image 3: Vaccinating a sheep against anthrax. Two men working together in this method could immunize up to 150 sheep in an hour, assuming the remaining 149 stood still after watching this procedure. Source: George Fleming,Pasteur and His Work, from an Agricultural and Veterinary Point of View(London: William Clowes and Sons, 1886), p. 51.

So far I have highlighted the history of perceptions of the use of animals in the production of vaccines, but what about the effects of vaccines on animals themselves? As both vectors and victims of contagious diseases, animals have been recipients of vaccines to prevent illnesses such as rabies, anthrax, and distemper. Agriculturalists early realized the potential benefits to humans from vaccinating livestock: herds would live longer, healthier lives and produce more young.

Agricultural and veterinary historians have no doubt included vaccines in their accounts of the development of modern animal husbandry, but how have human and animal health alike been affected by vaccines? While the usual metaphor of the two-way street is an overstatement, given greater human agency, these sources indicate an inter-relationship between humans and the animals we’ve vaccinated.

*For more on mass media and its effects on popular perception of medicine, see Bert Hansen,Picturing Medical Progress from Pasteur to Polio(Rutgers University Press, 2009).